Diabetes is a result of disruption in sugar utilization (glucose) or carbohydrates in the body and in the same time, it processes fats and proteins. The consequence of these disorders is damaged structure and function of the blood vessels, which directly affect the function of important organs (heart, kidneys, nervous system, eyes, etc.).
The main cause for the disease is the cessation or insufficient secretion of insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas gland.
Our body is composed of millions of cells which need energy in a simple form. This energy is nothing but sugar (carbohydrates) from the food we eat. When you eat or drink, most of the consumed foods are decomposed into simple sugars – glucose.
Glucose is transmitted through the bloodstream from the liver to the cells, where it will be used (muscles, brain…) stored (in the liver) or transformed into fat (also in the liver).
When the amount of glucose reaches a certain level, the pancreas secretes insulin. Insulin carries glucose to certain cells. The more glucose enters the cells, the lower the concentration of glucose in the blood is. Without insulin,the glucose can not be transmitted, which determines its increase in the blood.
Too much glucose in the blood is called blood sugar. By definition, diabetes is a condition where the amount of sugar in the blood is higher than 7.0 mmol (126 mg / dl).
Causes of diabetes
Propensity to diabetes is directly passed on generation to generation and the manifestation of the disease may depend on other causes throughout life, so that’s why diabetes does not occur at every descendant. There are numerous examples about this kind of diabetes in everyday life. It is known that children of infected parents do not necessarily have to suffer from diabetes. Also, there are some diabetics who do not always have this disease in the nearest family, or do not know about what their predecessors suffered from.
Other diseases and conditions
Unlike hereditary diabetes, there are other diseases and conditions that can cause diabetes. This is called secondary diabetes because it develops the diabetes as a result of the disease effects or the harmful effects of the disease on the body. Such is the case with the occurrence of diabetes in chronic alcoholism, chronic disease of the pancreas, various endocrine disorders (adrenal gland, pituitary, thyroid etc.), obesity and other conditions.
Methods of recognition
It is said that diabetes can be easily recognized if someone “gets thirsty a lot, pisses a lot, eats well and still weakens and gets tired quickly.” This is a classic diabetes because it has all the symptoms that are characteristic for this disease.
However, the intensity of the symptoms can vary. Usually, the affected person does not think that is sick, but has own views about the present symptoms (drinks water after eating, works a lot, sweats because of the drunk water, gets thirsty because of the consumed food etc.). However, when the symptoms become more severe they get visible for the environment in which the affected person lives, and there is usually someone who knows something about diabetes, so the affected person sees a doctor.
At people with less severe symptoms, the disease is discovered accidentally by a medical check up. Some people have unbearable need for sweets, others complain about itching of the genital organs, third ones suffer from skin ulcers etc.
If for any reason you suspect on diabetes, it is necessary to confirm the suspicion with a medical examination, which comprises data obtained by the diseased one, blood analysis and urinalysis.
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